Q. 2 . What is groupthink. Explain. 
In accordance to Irving Janis(1972), groupthink is " a degeneration of mental efficiency, truth testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressures". Hence, the overemphasis on consensus and arrangement leads people to be reluctant to evaluate group members' ideas critically. This hinders decision-making and becomes an obstacle to group productivity. Particular conditions prefer the development of groupthink. i) The first condition is high cohesiveness. Natural groups usually avoid conflicts and to require conformity. ii) The second is different antecedents including directive management, high tension, insulation of the group and deficiency of methodical types of procedures for producing and evaluating alternatives. A bunch suffering from groupthink displays well-known symptoms. Indications of Groupthink and the way to Prevent It
вЂў Confusion of invulnerability: Group members feel they are really above critique. This sign leads to extreme optimism and risk acquiring. вЂў Confusion of group morality: Group members truly feel they are ethical in their activities and therefore above reproach. This kind of symptom leads the group to disregard the ethical significance of their decisions. вЂў Confusion of unanimity: Group members believe there may be unanimous agreement on the decisions. Silence is definitely misconstrued while consent. вЂў Rationalization: Group members concoct explanations because of their decisions to make them seem rational and correct. The answers are that other alternatives aren't considered, and there is an unwillingness to reconsider the group's assumptions. вЂў Stereotyping the enemy: Opponents are stereotyped as wicked or ridiculous. This potential clients the group to underestimate its resistance. вЂў Self-censorship: Members do not express their very own doubts or concerns about the course of action. This helps prevent critical research of the decisions. вЂў Peer pressure: Any members who have express questions or issues are pushed by additional group members, who query their loyalty. вЂў Head guards: Several...